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tv   Los Angeles Mayor Villaraigosa  CSPAN  January 19, 2013 1:00pm-2:00pm EST

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it is during the evening events we see the inaugural ball. we could see as many as 14 balls. president clinton in 1993 had 14, which is the record at the present time. it depends on the president, the resources available, and sometimes the weather. they can have them in elaborate, or fairly simple. here is a picture of the facility, again, decorated in a patriotic fashion. both resident bush and president obama chose to make and highlight this site, calling it the commander-in-chief inaugural ball, and it was dedicated in both cases to members of the armed forces.
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♪ [applause] >> this is quite typical of what inaugural balls can do, recognizing the work of the people that have worked to get the president elected. in the 1840s, when andrew jackson was the president, he opened up the white house, much to his chagrin, because it was trashed because of that, but he wanted popular people type of event, not a formal ball. >> you can watch the president inauguration at the white house,
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and monday, the public ceremony , but first his weekly radio address, where he talked about recent proposals for reducing gun violence he asked the american people to find out where their representatives stood. >> hi, everybody. i announced a series of concrete steps we should take to protect our children and community from gun violence, growing out of meetings held with more than 200 different groups, from parents and teachers, to law enforcement and sportsman, to religious leaders and mental health professionals. in the weeks ahead, i will do everything in my power to make them a reality.
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while we might not be able to protect every act of senseless violence, if there's anything we can do to reduce it it, if one life can be saved, we have the obligation to try. my administration is taking actions, strengthening back run checks, directing the center for disease control to study the best way to reduce gun violence , but the truth is making a real and lasting difference also requires congress to act and act soon. first, it is time for congress to require a universal background check for anyone trying to buy a gun. as many as 40% of all gun purchases are conducted without one. it is not safe, not smart, and not read -- not fair to responsible gun buyers or sellers. the majority of americans believe anyone buying a gun should have to prove they
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are not a felon or prohibited. that is just common sense. second, congress should restore a ban on military-style assault weapons. any assault rifles, when combined with high capacity magazines, have one purpose and one purpose only, to as many bullets as possible as quickly as possible. they have no place in our community, and the majority of the american people agree with me. finally, congress needs to make it easier rather than harder for law enforcement to do their job. we should make it difficult for people to sell guns to criminal's, and we should put more cops back on the job and back on the streets. i believe the second amendment guarantees an individual right to bear arms. we have a strong tradition of gun ownership in this country, and the vast majority of gun owners act responsibly, but i
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also believe most gun owners believe we can respect the second amendment while keeping and irresponsible, lawbreaking few from violence on a mass scale. none of this will be easy. pundits, daschle interest lobby , and politicians are calling gun reform an all-out assault on liberty, not because that is true, but that is because they get higher ratings or make more money, and behind the scenes there is taking the status quo. this time, it cannot be up to them. it has to be up to you. if you want this time to be different, then i need your help to make it different. ask your member of congress if they support universal background checks and renewing a ban on military-style assault weapons, and if the answer is no, ask them why not. ask them why a grade a rating
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from the gun lobbyists is more important than keeping children safe. i got a letter from 80-year-old rachel, who lives in brooklyn, new york, who wrote all cold please do something so that that people cannot get guns." rachel is counting on us, and let's get this done for her and all the other children in this country. let's make sure this country is a safer place for all children to learn and to grow. thank you, and have a great weekend. >> i am congressman james lankford from the state of oklahoma. tomorrow, president obama will be sworn in for a second term, and though we disagree on many areas of policy, i asked americans to ray for the president and the nation in the days ahead. millions of americans are still
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out of work, and the cost of groceries, gas and healthcare continues to rise. in the long history of our nation, we have never increased spending and federal that faster than we have in this time. in the book of proverbs, it's as the wise man leaves an inheritance for his children's children, and unfortunately washington is taking our children's inheritance, and federal spending is taking families down. it is time for democrats and republicans to work together to create a plan to get our nation and families back on track. every family and every business has a budget. our nation should have a budget as well. every year the president is required to submit a budget proposal by february 4. the obama administration has already informed congress that for the fourth time in five years it will be late for a budget to your representatives. unfortunately, the president has missed more budget deadlines
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than any of his predecessors. the house and senate are required to submit a law each year april 15. the democratic run senate has not approved such a resolution it almost four years -- 1361 days to be exact. this is not the result of washington gridlock. majority leader harry reid said it would be foolish for his party in the senate to produce a budget. we disagree. what more than $16 -- more than 16 trillion dollars in debt, we believe it is foolish not to have a budget. we will meet our obligation to pass a budget on time, moderate spending, pay bills and keep the government running. most importantly, there will be a plan to slowly, but surely walk our nation out of debt, deficit and declined. on your behalf, we will insist that the democrats to run the rest of washington do the same.
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this debate is often argued in numbers and figures, but it is really about families like yours that bear the burden of a slow economy, constant uncertainty, and ever-changing government rules that chase jobs and opportunity overseas. one day to day life costs more, and jobs pay less, we do not solve the problem by delaying decisions, raise taxes, or refusing to tackle the most pressing economic challenges. you deserve better. with the swearing in of a new congress and the inauguration of president obama, this is the opportunity for a fresh start, but because government debt affects all of us, republicans will not simply provide a blank check for uncontrolled spending , a rational borrowing, and constant nickel and dime tax increases. the issues that we face today are not an impossible obstacle. they are merely the challenges of our time. we have the guidance of great
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leaders of the past that have faced tougher challenges than this with grace and dignity like dr. martin luther king jr., who won said the most persistent and urgent question is what are you doing for others? it is a good word for all of us , and a clarion call that should ring in our ears on his birthday weekend. regardless of our differences, all had the same dream or the future of our kids and grand kids. i pray that my children will grow up with your children in a nation that enjoys god lessons and freedom -- god's blessings and freedom. >> later, we will hear from michelle obama at the children's inaugural ball, and we will look at vice president biden volunteering in washington, dc tomorrow, the swearing in of the second term. today is the national day of
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service, a tradition president obama has taken up since their first day in the white house, but installed by president clinton, who kicked off today's events with his daughter chelsea. >> are you ready to kick off this day of doing a bunch of good? i will be your mc today. let's have a huge national day of service welcome for the woman who was the cochairman of the president reelection campaign, and is currently serving as the cochair for the inauguration committee, let's hear it for this eva longoria. [applause] >> good morning.
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i am so excited to be here. it is so inspiring to see many of you come out for this national day of service and give back to your community. i grew up in corpus christi, texas, and i grew up in a family of volunteers, and a family and community of people that wanted to get back. my three sisters and i were very blessed to have great role models, which were my parents, who dedicated their lives to serving others. my mother was a special education teacher. yay, teachers. my father worked on the army base, but my parents were crystal clear on what they wanted for us, and that was in education, and so what we did to give back was in the educational arena. i love that president obama has the same values. he knows that for our nation, a good education can not be a luxury. it is imperative that we will
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create jobs, strengthen the middle class and build a workforce that will keep us innovative and in a global market. like you, he knows that giving our students the tools they need to succeed is the best way to give back, so if you are thinking about how you could serve or follow the president's example, to honor this national day of service, start with this -- make a difference in one child's life. mentor a student. donate a book to a library. donate supplies to a neighborhood school. help to paint a classroom, or clean up a playground. all in terror at an afterschool program teach a class to adults who never want bridget -- volunteer at an afterschool program or teach a class to adults. my education was important, and i want to make sure the next generation was -- has that as well, so when i launched the evaline gora foundation, i --
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eva longoria foundation, i focused on latinas and education, and my philanthropy is based on the belief that america should be a place where hard work pays off, ambition can create opportunity, and no matter where you come from, what you look like, or what your last name is, you can make it if you try. [applause]ask so, let's start off the -- so, let's start off this new year by renewing america's promise. we will get back to our schools and communities, and we will be starting our country. as you make the dream of a good education a reality, you will find that giving back not only benefits the community, but it will enrich your life as well. it is my honor to introduce someone who has giving back in her dna, the honorary chair of this national day of service,
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chelsea clinton. [applause]♪ >> good morning, everybody. i want to echo what eva said, and say how awesome it is to see this enthusiasm in this room today. it makes me even more excited and honored to be the chair of the national day of service. this day in particular has a lot of personal meaning for me. i am proud of my parents for countless reasons. [applause]i am glad that you feel the same way. one of the way -- one of the reasons i am particularly proud of my father today is that 19 years ago he signed the bill that made martin luther king day
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a national day of service, and when he signed the bill, he reminded us of what dr. king often called lights was persistent and urgent question, what are you doing for others? in my family the only wrong answer to that question is nothing. there are as many right answers as there are people in this tent today, and people in this country had -- this country. eva about how her parents inspired her, and my parents inspire me every day, and when i engage in the service project i will be thinking about my grandmother dorothy, who started giving back when she was a child. she volunteered in her local school, helping to tutor migrant workers, farm children in southern california, in reading,
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english and writing. as she got older and had her own children, she supervised school trips. she always volunteered to cook and extra lunch for somebody whose parents could not provide that for them. when she got older still, her children, including my mom, left the home, and she became a big sister and a mentor to so many young girls who like her had been neglected and abused as a child. and she got older still and could not do that any longer, she would make close to donate to her local church, and when she could no longer met, she gave what money she could to support the big sisters and big brothers programs, to help still ensure that little girls like her had people who believed in him, just like she had so many people that believed in her because she always believed that every child that had been elected could grow up to be a
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mother and have a home full of love and support so that her children, like my mother, could have dreams that reach the sky. that is the chain of service in our country. i am deeply grateful to the inspiring example of my grandmother and my parents, and i am so grateful to see so much enthusiasm in this room today. i hope that today will he either only the most recent a of service in so many of your lives, or particularly for the children in the tent today, a beginning of a life of service. we are certainly all the more stronger for it, and it is a lot more fun when we work together had thank you all for being here, and it is my great honor and privilege to ask joe biden to the stage. have fun, everybody. thank you. ♪ >> good morning, everyone. thank you, chelsea and eva for
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leading this important effort, and thank you, most importantly to you out here on this chilly saturday morning for being here. your dedication is an inspiration to me and my family had its event, a national day of service, is a wonderful way to honor, as chelsea eloquently noted, the legacy of dr. king, and kick off this inaugural weekend. it is also a reminder, a reminder that the veterans of our nation, every day is a service for them, and everyday day is a day of sacrifice. today, we remember during my 10 year career in the military, and one tour in iraq i have had the honor of serving with true heroes whose service and sacrifice i have seen up close and personal. as of yesterday, we remember today, the 6572 brave men and
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women in uniform that have paid the ultimate sacrifice, returning home as fallen angels through my station in dover, delaware. if you look around this magnificent mall, you will see great monuments to that service, memorials honoring those that have made this alternate sacrifice for their country, -- ultimate sacrifice for this country, but there are fewer monuments to the thousands of selfless acts of service and sacrifice performed around this country every day and the world rejig and in the world by our servicemen and women. whether it is -- and in this world by our servicemen and women. whether it is a 17-year-year -- 17-year-old boy begging for a
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signature, or one who leaves their home to use sandbags to protect someone else's home whether it be in a hurricane, or superstorm sandy. you can clap for that herod that is right. [applause]the servicemen and women and their families are living monuments to that service. the commitment to serve, willingness to volunteer should be an inspiration, it is a -- an inspiration to me, and it should be to you, and i know it is. despite all the talk about how divided we are, more and more americans are coming together to serve each other every day had volunteerism in america is at a five-year high. in 2011, americans spent 8 billion hours getting back to
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the communities, enough hours to build the entire empire state building more than 1000 times over here atthe servicemen and women and their families are living [applause]you represent that herod are organizing clothing and food drives, mentoring children, building playgrounds, and so much more. when i see you here today, your service is having a greater impact. you are instilling, like my wife and i, brother and sister, mike we are trying to do with our kids -- instilling that habit of service, making it second nature to put others first, as chelsea hotel terrance thought her. parentss -- chelsea's parents taught her.
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consider serving our veterans as a small way of repaying the service that they have given to us. as my father said tom and you have heard him say over the last year -- said, and as you have heard him say over the last year, helping to show that the strength of our example is as powerful as the example of our strength. the president and my father will raise their right hand and pledge again to do all they can to strengthen our nation. [applause]today, we could all lend a hand, and do the same. in doing so, we will be working to make our great country worthy of
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our veterans service and sacrifice. thank you, and god bless our troops. ♪ >> what is your name? >> his father, vice president joe biden, volunteered today at the dc armory, putting together for the tree bags for us troops serving overseas as well as wounded warriors and first responders. dr. jill biden has been active , and they're granddaughter volunteered with them today, with an event of our veterans service and sacrifice. organized by points of light, which was created under the george w. bush administration had -- administration. >> good morning. you mind if i take a picture? >> not at all. >> hi, how are you? >> there is a woman that knows what she is doing.
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points of light>> thank you. >> mr. vice president. >> hey, man, how are you? >> i am good at -- good. >> man, how are you? >> i am good. >> good afternoon, vice president. >> how are you? >> i am with volunteer fairfax. >> thank you for what you are doing. >> thank you very much. we appreciate you coming today. >> thank you. >> hi. >> hey,:-), how are you doing? >> i am doing well. -- smiley, how are you doing?
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>> i am doing well. >> all right. >> i am sorry. [indiscernible]>> hey, sir. how are you doing? >> fantastic. how are you? >> thank you. [indiscernible]>> three, four. >> thank you.
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>> how are you doing? >> good, how about you? >> can i please take your photo? >> one, t oh, 3, 4 -- one, tw oh, 3, 4. we are slowing down rugrats here. -- progress here. god bless you.
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why don't you put them up here? all right. great. >> thank you so much for coming. you are an inspiration. >> nice to see you. >> are we going to get a picture? >> if you have a camera, we are not going to slow up the line here. >> thanks for your service. >> how are you doing? thank you. >> thank you, sarah. thank you for volunteering.
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>> hey, how are you. thank you, thank you for volunteering. >>, on down, my dear. there you go.
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rex the vice president also made remarks while he was volunteering at the dc armory. [applause]>> i am the father of two great, crazy sons had one is an officer in the united states navy reserve. [applause] x i want to introduce you to the whole family. my daughter, who is a social worker. [laughter]>> this is my daughter in law. >> my number three granddaughter.
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my number two granddaughter, my number three granddaughter, my number four, and i want you to say hello to hunter, and the love of my life, i oldest granddaughter, who is crazy about me, a freshman in college now, naomi. i want to introduce my third son. i told my daughter when she married him, i said if you change your mind, i am keeping an. -- keeping him. [laughter][applause] i would be happy to claim it as my daughter, [indiscernible] this is a family affair.
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i have watched you come through. family, kids, grandkids, mothers, fathers. you all get why this is so important today heard -- today. we still have 60,000 troops in harms way. one of the things that you all know, in the national guard that are here today, they are not looking for anything. knowing that you remembered, knowing that we back home just remembered, we know what is going on -- this is an important piece of the equation. just as she and michelle started an organization, only one
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percent of the american population of these incredible warriors fighting these two wars, and thank god we ended one anorak, and we will end the second one as well. [applause]there is only 99 -- there is only one percent fighting this war. 99% of americans over them -- oh them. [indiscernible], only one percent of the american population of these incredible warriors fighting these we say thank you. [applause] this is bigger than our veterans. this is a day of service. i got started in politics. i am a little older. dr. king was assassinated when i
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was a senior in college. this has gotten bigger and bigger, this notion of service, and there is a great quotation that bears repeating -- we, tied in the single garment, whatever affects one, directly affect the other. that is what you are doing today. you are acknowledging thatwe sa. we have to move back to reaching out to people. that is what you are all about. this is like preaching to the choir, but we wanted to say thank you. dr. king taught us you never measure success by one, two, or 10 men and what they can achieve, but what all men can achieve, and i think we are on the cusp of doing great things.
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it has nothing to do with who was elected, but i think the country is on the cusp of doing truly great things. one of the guys -- excuse me, i do not want to refer to him as one of the guys, i served with him as president of the united states, president bush, started this program, and he said, and i thought it was prophetic, "we have the promise of a renewed america. we can find meaning and reward in serving a higher purpose than ourselves, a shining purpose, and elimination. this country is about possibilities." the possibilities are endless. i want to thank you for db -- deeply believing in the possibilities.
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thank you for what you are doing. god bless you, and may god protect our troops. thank you. [applause] [captioning performed bynational captioning institute] [captions copyright nationalcable satellite corp. 2013]
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>> this afternoon we take you to where the first lady and daughters will attend the first inaugural ball, but first some of the history behind inaugurations, describing how various presidents approach the day, and how the phrase so help me god became part of the ceremony. [applause]>> thanks very much. that was a tough act to follow,
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but i will try my best. we are about to have an inauguration monday, and the first question that comes to people's minds as they are sitting or standing there in the cold waiting for the ceremony to begin, we have separation of powers in this country. how is it that the president of the united states is being sworn into office on the steps of the capitol -- the legislative branch of the capital? that is the thrust of my comments. how did this come about? it is not in the constitution. the constitution tells you the date and the time the president needs to be sworn in, but not the -- it tells you the exact words and oath, but not anything else. yet we have this tradition built up against presidential inaugurations. it comes down to which came
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first, chicken or the egg, and the fact is in 1789, when this brand-new government was was getting started, the first part of the government to meet with the congress. it was supposed to meet march 4, but congress had trouble establishing a quorum, and it was not until april that the house and the senate got their quorum and they could do business. the first order of business was counting the ballots. it was relatively easy since it was unanimous that george washington had been elected president. the first thing they had to do was notify washington that he needed to come to new york city where the federal government was meeting. it took a while in those days to get wherever the federal government was, so they had a couple of weeks to work things out. the first thing they did was to write and know for everybody else to take, including the vice president.
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congress writes the oath that every other person that works for the government, from military, two judges, to legislators, that is written by congress. it has changed at various times. the oath that the president takes is unique, it is in the constitution and it has never changed. the question was where are we going to swear in the president of the united states? the congress was meeting in federal hall on wall street. it was a nice looking. the house had the bigger room upstairs, and the house at the president should be sworn in in our chamber, and that was fine except everybody that was in new york wanted to see george washington get sworn in so they could not divide everyone in the house chamber, but upstairs they had a balcony overlooking wall street, so the senate said, upstairs, and we will have the
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ceremony up here and washington could take his oath on the balcony. those decisions, which were logical, set a precedent. ever since, president has taken their oath more often than not outside and more often than not congress has taken a lead. vice president adams was the president of the senate at the time, and he was a useful player because he had been the us minister to england, and one of the questions was there were not enough seats upstairs, and he said in parliament when the house of commons marches to the house of lords, they have to stand up, and that adds to the drama and the house members can stand up for whatever the ceremony is going to be. fortunately, these days, we do have seats. when washington arrived, there was a lot of commotion. he was welcomed.
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the barge came across the hudson river. there were parades, fireworks, activities. they were before the inauguration, rather than after. then, he stepped out onto the platform. there was no chief justice of the supreme court, but the chancellor of the state of new york then gave the oath of office -- livingston gave the oath of office area -- of office. so, here is president washington, he had just been sworn in, the crowd cheers, and then he comes back into the senate chamber and delivers an address. there is no mention of an inaugural address, but the president of the united states have been giving inaugural addresses since george washington led the procession. one of the senators said that
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washington, who everybody thought of as they great strongman was trembling. he was quite nervous. the people never did hear what was going on. then, in 1796, after washington -- 1793, i should say, after washington's first term was over, he was elected to the second term, they were in washington, and at this point washington gave the shortest inaugural address, relatively brief remarks, but following this tradition, and still the u.s. congress was hosting this institution. now, one of the strange things about the inauguration, and one that leads to controversy is that, as i mentioned, the constitution write out the oath
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of office. one thing the constitution does not say is concluding the inaugural oath with "so help me god." yet most president say so help me god. there was a folklore that develop that washington said so help me god, and we were looking for sources to verify that he did or did not say "so help me god," and we are not so sure about this. one of the account was given by washington irving, who was about five years old at the time, but years later he gave his remembrance. we still do not know what happened at this stage. it is up to the president of the united states to say whatever he wants, and most president in the 19th century did not repeat
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the oath of office. they just said "i do." what is interesting to me is that the chief justice that swears than in says "so help me god." if you are going to be a strict interpreter of the constitution, it is not there. if you are wondering why the chief justice puts this in, it has become tradition, because it is much more important than even the cartridge -- constitutional structure. it has become a point of controversy. i should say that chief justices of the united states have been known to occasionally to bungle the oath of office. one reason they do fumble is because they are used to giving the oath many times. it is not the same oath we take. the oath that we take is given
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by congress, and that oath does end with "so help me god." the military oath ended that way, so it was natural for washington to say it on that occasion, although not required. in defense of chief justice roberts, he is not the first to get the words confused. william howard taft, who was a distinguished chief justice, swore in herbert hoover in 1929, and that ceremony was carried over the radio, and a little girl wrote in to justice taft and said you got the words wrong. that is not the order of the words. he wrote back and said i am sure that i got them right here at -- right. they played the tape, and found that he had reversed some of the words. the fact of the matter is it does not make a difference if the chief justice skips a word,
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or gets a word out of order. as i mentioned, the presidency in the 19th century, and even herbert hoover just said "i do ," and that is certainly appropriate as well. we moved down to washington, dc, where the first inauguration is taking place, and there is a change of party for the first time, from the federalists, who were more formal, to the new republicans, jeffersonian republicans, or the democratic republicans, who felt more than they were the party of the people. thomas jefferson was being inaugurated, and he did not want a lot of for the role with his inauguration. he stripped away a lot of the formalities built up under washington and adams. so, thomas jefferson is living in a boarding house across the street from the capital, about where the library of congress stands today, and when the time comes he just walks across the street, and he is just just
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fairly casually. he goes to the senate chamber to the senate chamber happened to be the largest chamber in the capital. the house with meeting in a room that is today occupied by a single senator, is to give you some sense of the portions, because the house wing had not been built yet. only the senate wing had been constructed. thomas jefferson went to this and he was sworn in by his political opponent, and also his vice president, aaron burr, who was also a political opponent. it must have been a tense inauguration. then, he delivered his inaugural address in a voice that was so low that most people in the room, and the room was absolutely packed from all the the descriptions, most people could not hear what jefferson was saying. thomas jefferson, as president, delivered to public speeches in
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the entire eight years of his presidency. what was his first inaugural address, and what was his second. he figured that was his minimum. washington and adams had gone to congress to get their state of the union addresses in person, but jefferson thought this was too much like the kink going to parliament, too much like a -- king going to parliament, to regal, too much like a royalty. they sent it up for the clerk to read. most people were not paying attention, and they missed the opportunity to take leadership over the legislative branch. it is not until 1913 that a political scientist named woodrow wilson is elected president and said there is nothing to prevent me from going up there, and this would be a great way to present my legislative program. so, wilson starts going in person. he is delighted that he thought
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of something theodore roosevelt did not think of, and he knew it would drive him wild to think that he missed that opportunity. ever since wilson, almost all president of the united states have taken the opportunity to go to congress in hers and. jefferson -- to go to congress in person. jefferson, as i say, was trying to downplay a lot of the ceremony, but he also understood the need for an inauguration. he understood the purpose of it. after a divisive election, the election of 1800 was one of the most divisive, and everybody has to choose sides, the inauguration is the moment that we all come back together again. this is not a presidential candidate. this is the person that was elected. this is the person that is going to lead the country for the next four years. we need to put aside the elections, heal the wounds of the election. so, in the election, jefferson
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says we are all federalists, we are all republicans, basically, we are all americans, coming together and we are going to work together. this is the hope that every president has is -- in his inaugural address, and that is one of the main reasons for having this great ceremony each time, to put a cap on the end of the election and to ring the nation back together again for the next president term. -- president's term. now, you have the government in washington, and they have established precedent. by the time james madison is inaugurated, the house chamber is completed. i do not know if you have been to statutory ball, james madison was inaugurated there, both terms as president. james monroe would have been inaugurated in the old statuary hall, the old house of
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representatives at the time, except that the british had burnt the building down in 1814. we were at war with great britain, and british troops came down maryland avenue, burned down the capital, the white house and most other unlike buildings in washington, dc. so, they could not hold an inauguration in the house chamber. instead, they don't they temporary -- they built a temporary capital that became known as the old pre-k capital, and it stood where the supreme court stands today as it was not begin of to accommodate the crowds so monroe is inaugurated outside, on the steps. it was a good tradition, but it did not immediately catch on. inaugurations on those days were held on march 4. if you think it is bad in january, the weather in march
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can be pretty cool as well. we have had a history of bad weather on march 4, so presidents preferred to be inaugurated in doors. munro was held there as well. andrew jackson, when he becomes president -- john quincy adams is also in the old house chamber -- andrew jackson, the man of the people, the great hero, the hero of the war of 1812, fighting in that last battle in new orleans that we are about to have the bicentennial of -- he draws a large crowd to washington, dc he becomes president in 1829, and he stands outside on the steps of the capital, and that begins a tradition from andrew jackson,
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to jimmy carter, of presidents of the united states standing on the east front steps of the capital. if you can imagine the capital, the capital, though -- capital's primary entrance is on the east front. e-book booking the other side is the front of the capital. -- people think the other side is the front of the capital. the capital has no front. the west front, looking down the mall, which is now a magnificent this do, did not look anything like that in the 19th century. that west front was not developed, nor was the mall developed. inaugurations were done on the east front, and that involves building a platform. because it got bigger and bigger, as you are accommodating more evil, which is more people, and you -- more people, and you had to accommodate the television, and the media in the 20th century, so they had to build a big platform across from it for the media. it got so big, in fact, that anybody who wanted to see the inauguration could not stand
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behind it because it blocked your view. they had to stand on the side to see what was going on. also, they had to start building this in september, before the election. that took up all of the parking places. in those days, members of congress used to park on the plaza. they did not like the idea that they lost their parking places. so, the joint committee on the inauguration, which is a congressional committee that hosts the inauguration, decided to move the inauguration in 1981 to the west front of the capital. this creates one of the great myths about inaugurations, and i guarantee you will read it in at least one newspaper outlet during this inauguration, and that is somebody is going to say well, they inauguration was held on the west front of the capital since ronald reagan was president because he was governor of california, a man of the west, and wanted to face to the west as president and he picked that side.
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now, the problem with this is the joint committee on the inauguration tix that site in june of 1980, and ronald reagan was not even nominated until july had -- july. the inaugural platform under construction in november -- and jimmy carter were reelected, he would've been sworn in on the west front. if john anderson would have been elected, he would've been sworn in on the west front. ronald reagan was sworn in on a decision made by the joint committee on the inauguration. now, ronald reagan was smart enough to realize that he could take possession of this, even though he did not order this, or choose this. he put it in his inaugural address and he said i am the first president to look west, looking out over the graves of the heroes in arlington cemetery, towards the pacific. he took ownership of that move from the east front to the west front, even though he was not
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the person to choose it. this is an important lesson in saying who runs the president inauguration -- the president's inauguration? ever since the president akin to the capital, congress has run the inauguration, at least the the part that takes place during swearing-in. that part has traditionally been done by the congress. they start one year in advance, long before they know who will be nominated or elected. they start to make the plans, they take a theme for the inauguration. they build a platform, print the tickets. they get everything underway, so that when somebody is elected in november, they can get everything done between november and january.
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now, for a long time in american history the inauguration was on march 4. so, they had longer to prepare for this, from november until march, but in 1933, the constitution was amended with the 23rd amendment, which moved the end of duration up, so no on january 3, the new congress comes in -- the inauguration up, so now the new congress begins on january 3. congress creates a joint committee on the inauguration, and usually it is chaired by the chairman of the senate rules committee, and it is cochaired by the speaker. it is done jointly between the two houses, but traditionally the senate has taken the lead and does quite a bit of it. they work right now with a staff of about 14 people dealing with this over the last year. now, there is a second inaugural committee, and that is when somebody is elected president,


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